Deadweight tonnes Deadweight pounds Volume m3 Volume feet3 Length meter Length feet Beam m Beam feet 20 Depth m Depth feet 5. Beam m Beam feet Depth m Depth feet 5 Length meter Length feet 81 Beam m Beam feet 13 Depth m Depth feet 3 9.
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Thank you! If you signed up to stay updated on Damen you will receive a confirmation email.While in port, ships need to have a range of services. Often ships need to be 'refueled' this is called bunkering. A boat called a bunker barge, rather like a floating petrol station, goes alongside the ship. The bunker barge has powerful pumps and loads fuel oil, called bunkers, into the ship's storage bunker tanks.
There are other businesses that may visit the ship and take orders for food and other things the crew needs. These are delivered before the ship leaves. Toggle navigation. Protecting the sea Types of pollution Causes of oil pollution Causes of chemical pollution Other pollution from ships Air pollution Most efficient transport Other boats and pollution Australia's response to spills What happens with toilets?
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Organisations in ports Role of ports Types of ships Who runs a port? The transfer of fuel must be done properly and securely to prevent any oil spills. The ship may also take on fresh water. Our Sponsors A big thank you to all our kind sponsors, without you our work would not be possible.A bit of a historical background first.
Soon after its introduction into the industrialized world as a source of power, steam quickly became a dominant force in both land locomotives and sea transport steamships. Steamships used the power of steam to travel and steam was generated by feeding coal into the furnaces on board the ship. Since coal was the original fuel for steamships, the term bunker became synonymous with fuel and therefore Bunker is simply nothing but FUEL oil used in ships. There are various types of Fuel Oil and within the Fuel Oils, there are many classifications, standards and grades.
Bunkers are supplied through various means such as bunker barges, pipelines, road tankers etc. This depends on the port in question and the accessibility to the ship.
As you may have seen, oil prices are quite volatile, and therefore ship operators or owners maybe unable to calculate a consistent operating cost for their ships. In order to counter the fluctuations in oil prices, the shipping lines charge a surcharge on top of the ocean freight, known as Bunker Adjustment Factor BAF.
This BAF is usually aligned with the movement of the oil prices much like the fuel for our cars. In some trade lanes, BAF maybe included in the freight rate and may not be shown separately in you freight quotation or invoice. So the next time you hear that a ship is in port for bunkering, you know that it is there just to fill up some fuel.
Thank you very much for this. May i ask if people do ship-to-ship bunkering? Many thanks in advance. Ashish S has a good point. It takes a lot of work and precision! When a ship comes near the port, plenty needs to be done from the shore — providing fuel, bunkering, de-bunkering, arranging ship supplies, fresh water supplies and even crew transfers between the ship and the port.
All of these services, bunkering especially, should be kept in mind and arranged in advance. Hi everyone!Bunkering procedure is one such operation on a ship which has been the reason for several accidents in the past. Bunkering on a ship can be of fuel oil, sludge, diesel oil, cargo etc. Bunkering of fuel or diesel oil requires utmost care and alertness to prevent any kind of fire accident or oil spill. In this article we will learn about the bunkering procedure on a ship and what are the important points that are to be taken into consideration while bunkering.
In the shipping industry, the word bunker is used for fuel and lube oils, which are stored on a ship and used for machinery operation only. When the ship receives any kind of oil for using it in its machinery it is called a bunker fuel or bunker oil. Following are different types of bunkers which are supplied to a commercial or passenger vessel:. The bunker fuel can be supplied to a cargo ship in different ways.
The mode or method may vary depending upon the grade or type of fuel being delivered to the vessel. There can be different types of bunkering facilities which supply the required marine fuel or lube oil to the ship. A small barge or ship carrying bunker fuel can be used to transfer marine fuel oil such as heavy fuel oil to the vessel. If the quantity of oil is less e. It might be required to empty some tanks and transfer the oil from one tank to other.
This is required to prevent the mixing of two oils and prevent incompatibility between the previous oil and the new oil. The sounding of other fuel storage tank not be used in bunkering operation should also be taken to keep a record of fuel already present onboard. A meeting should be held between the members that will take part in the bunkering process, and they should be explained about the following An overflow tank is provided in the engine room which is connected to the bunker tank and bunker line.
Ensure the overflow tank is kept empty to transfer excess fuel from the bunker tanks. Onboard communication, signs, and signals to stop the operation between the people involved in bunkering are to be understood by all the crew involved in the operation. Vessel draught and trim is recorded before bunkering. All equipment in SOPEP shipboard oil pollution emergency plan locker are checked and kept near the bunkering station.
When bunker ship or barge is secured to the ship side, the person in charge on the barge is also explained about the bunker plan. The hose is then connected to the manifold. The condition of the hose must be checked properly by the ship staff and if it is not satisfactory, same to be notified to the chief engineer.
The ship staff must recheck the flange connection to eliminate the doubt of any leakage. Once the connection is made, the chief engineer will ensure all the line valves which will lead the bunker fuel to the selected bunker tanks are open, keeping the main manifold valve shut. Sign and signals are to be followed as discussed in case of communication during an emergency. Ensure to check its working before commencing the operation.
Tanker Barges for Sale
During the start of the bunker, the pumping rate is kept low; this is done to check that the oil is coming to the tank to which the valve is opened.Conclusion One of the most critical operations on the ship is the fuel oil bunkering. The term has its roots back in the days when the primary source of power for the ships was coal. The coal was stored in a container known as the bunker. As the industry changed from coal to oil for propulsion, the name remained and became synonymous with the fuel for ships.
Hence, bunkering oil means fuel oil used for ships. Bunker fuel is the residual portion that remains from the process of crude oil refinement. Naturally, it is much cheaper than the latter. It is used by big land-based plants as well as large ships for their propulsion and auxiliary engines.
Since it is cheap, it lowers the expenditure for companies dealing with commercial shipping.
What Is Bunkering In Ships?
Bunker fuel in itself might be cheap. But they are heavy, thick and consequently storing them becomes a challenge. Special procedures need to be adopted regarding heat management and transportation. How much oil is to be taken is decided based on the duration of the trip.
Usually, the tank is filled with enough oil to last for 3 days. But in case of longer trips over the Pacific and the Atlantic there needs to be enough oil for five days as in these cases it is not usually possible to get oil en route. The amount of oil that is to be taken is decided after consulting the master.
This conference is less of a formal thing, and more of a discussion regarding the issues involved, the duty that each needs to perform, precaution against overflow, and if by chance there is a case of a spill, how that is to be handled is also discussed in this meeting. A bunker plan is chalked out with the help of the chief engineer.
The plan makes sure that the mixing up of oil is avoided as much as possible to maintain the draft and proper trim of the ship. The bunker plan made by the chief is discussed, and in some scenarios, a copy of it is also sent to the owner for approval before initiating the bunkering process.
The basic reason behind creating this plan is to make sure someone of higher authority is overseeing the process and seeing to it that there is no overfilling happening and that the temperature is not going above say degree Celsius. Bunkering operations can be carried out at sea or a port. Both the methods have their advantages and disadvantages. It all boils down to the juggling of maintenance costs and running costs.
Quite a number of commercial ships depend upon this method. The major sea routes have many points where there are bunkering barges providing bunkering facility.
The advantages of this method are as follows. This is the process where two ships align themselves side by, and then oil is transferred from one vessel to the other. Here one ship acts as the terminal while the other moors. It is the most common bunkering process at sea. In this operation, the ship receiving the fuel is called the daughter vessel and the one providing it is called the mother vessel.
It does not matter which of the two is bigger. A crane helps in transferring the hose from the mother vessel to the daughter vessel. Once the connection is securely made the oil is pumped from one vessel to the other. Initially, the pumping rate is kept low to make sure that the fuel is entering the right tank or tanks and once it is confirmed the speed is increased to the maximum to finish the job as quickly as possible.
This is an easier process.Bunkers are a critical component of ship operations and one of the most cost intensive. Bunkering services and service providers such as a bunker barge operator play a crucial role in maritime shipping worldwide. All major ports around the world offer this as part of their service suite, to attract more vessels, increase efficiency, increase revenue and create local employment. While Transnet ensures that the bunker operator has all necessary licenses, South African Maritime Safety Authority ensures that the crew on board are suitably qualified, the vessel is seaworthy, as well as cargo-worthy and that marine pollution is minimised.
Linsen Nambi Bunker Services fulfils the bunkering needs of the shipping traffic in South Africa through their bunker barge operations. We caught up with Durand Naidoo, MD of Linsen Nambi who explained what a day in the life of a bunker barge operator looks like. The shift structure ensures that seafarers work on average 14 days in a month and are provided with sufficient rest periods.
The morning shift starts with a detailed handover between all Officers and Ratings, then once the handover is complete, the off going shift leaves the barge. Morning toolbox talks takes place, where the Captains discuss the plan for the day including various aspects relating to operational safety and efficiency. The officers and crew then conduct morning rounds including gangway watches, stowaway searches, atmosphere checks, housekeeping activities etc.
All crew understand their role in the operation and get on with fulfilling their function. The Captain will move the bunker vessel from its layby berth to the load berth and manoeuvre the vessel into position, while ensuring that the bunker hoses or loading arm is able to safely reach the loading manifold, then once in position, the crew secure the vessel using mooring lines.
This allows the Captain to shut down the engines and progress to the next phase of the operation. The crew will connect the loading hose or assist the landside terminal loading staff with the hose connection at the bunker manifold.
An officer, in conjunction with terminal staff, will compete the predelivery safety checklist and loading plan, calculate the stop meter, agree sampling procedure and ensure all involved in the operation are aligned. Then once connections are secure and the safety checks completed the Captain will request that the terminal representative cautiously commence loading operations. At the initial start-up, product flow into the correct tanks is confirmed and the integrity of the connection assessed.
If all in order the rate is increased until the agreed pump rate is achieved. All tank valves are controlled from the bunker vessel bridge and the Captain manages the operation from the bridge.
Data from the Cargo Master System is fed into a custom software application. The software does the calculations and produces the required documents and reports. The software also ensures that information is reliably stored, backed up and easily accessible. The Captain will ensure that maximum tank levels are not exceeded and that the vessel maintains an even trim during the operation.
The Captain will give the terminal repetitive notice when nearing the end or when topping off tanks occurs.
At this point the rate is gradually reduced and eventually stopped, then compressed air is used to blow whatever product is still in the line back into the bunker vessel tanks. The Captain confirms that shore figures and product received by the barge are within tolerance. The loading advice is then signed, and the bunker vessel prepares for the delivery component of the operation. The Captain will sail the bunker vessel from the layby berth to wherever the customer vessel is docked in the harbour.
The process is similar to loading, that being, the Captain will manoeuvre the bunker vessel into position, ensuring that the barge flow boom and hose can reach the customer ships manifold. The Captain will also ensure that there is sufficient slack on the hose for both vessels to freely range with out placing undue stress on the hose on the connection. The bunker vessel crew will secure moorings and winch the barge against the customer ship, then once the barge is in place and secure, the Captain will shut down the engines.
The deck crew will ensure that there is safe access between the barge and the customer vessel. They will board the customer ship, manoeuvre the boom and hose into position and connect the delivery hose to the ships manifold. The rate will be gradually increased until the agreed rate is achieved. The rate is gradually decreased when topping off tanks occurs toward the end of the operation.The quantity of fuel oil to be received is decided in consultation with the master.
In accordance with the ensuing voyage, adequate reserves of oil is taken which would be sufficient normally for 3 day but 5 days in case of long Atlantic or pacific voyages where there is no chance to receive oil en route. The amount of oil to be taken depends on the number of days the ship would be at sea before it reaches the next port. In which tanks the oil is to be taken is discussed with the chief officer to ensure proper draft and trim of the ship is maintained and also to avoid mixing of oils as much as practicable.
Now, this conference is not to be formal but an interactive, sincere and extremely communicative one. Bunker plan made by the Chief Engineer is to be discussed and in some companies the plan is also sent to the owners for approval before starting the bunkering process.
The idea is that somebody superior has seen the plan to ensure that you will not overfill and keep the oil temperature in mind say 50 degree Celsius.
The first job is to see that the bunker barge is taken alongside safely. During one of my voyages, the barge could not come alongside the ship and we had to shift anchorage to commence the process.
The chief officer along with the crew should ensure that the barge is taken alongside safely and a safe means of access is provided to the barge crew. This part is very important. It is often noticed that people generally knock-off after the ropes are tied and the pilot ladder is lowered, without checking whether the bunker man is able to board the ship safely using the ladder or not. At times you need to rig and lower the gangway while continuously adjusting the height as the oil transfer progresses.
Once the barge is safely alongside and the bunker man is in the Engine Control Room ECRthe Chief Engineer and his assistant say 4 th Engineer should check important specifications and discuss the following things:.
To know the complete step-by-step Bunkering Procedure, read here. Important points to consider during the bunkering process. But once while bunkering at Singapore anchorage during evening time, the wind picked up and the forward mooring rope of the barge parted, swinging the bunker barge and putting tension on the bunker hose.
For quite a few minutes the bunker hose was in tension until the barge crew manoeuvred the barge alongside again. That day I learnt the importance of putting a bolt in each hole and the reason why USCG and Singapore Authorities insist on this point. However, I realised the mistake and quickly opened it before any damage could be done, but the bunker man at Suez noticed that and extracted a can of paint from me.
His excuse was that the bunker barge pump could have been damaged becauseof my mistake. It is therefore important that the chief engineer must be present on the spot throughout the bunkering process.
Inching Method: Open the tank valve for 5 minutes while other tanks are filling and then close again. Check the rise in cm and accordingly open it again for say 10 minutes. However, please do not fill beyond this. An incident happened when a bolt was kept inside the bunker flange pipe by oversight. It travelled to the tank valve and got stuck there. Obviously, the tank overflowed.
This was an odd case, but the tank valves have been known to leak and therefore should be kept a watch on. Thus the pressure gauge at the manifold was showing less reading and towards the end was even showing slightly negative.
We thought there was a problem with the bunker oil, but the oil in the tank was coming, though slowly. We told the bunker man that we have not received full quantity of oil, but as expected, he was emphatic. With great persuasion, he agreed to give 15T more our shortage was showing 30T.
Moreover, 3 rd Engineer could not go to the barge to check because of bad weather and large gap between two vessels created by thick fenders. At this time I realised that the quantity of oil is showing less because the ship is down by head and the pressure gauge was behaving abnormally because the oil was not reaching it properly. Later when we sailed and filled up the after peak tanks, we got all our oil back to the right level. People say, write a note of protest.
I have seen many notes in the files but have never written one till date. I am not saying it is useless, but it is always better to negotiate and arrive at a figure to appear on the BDN and to finish the matter then and there.